Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Despite controversy concerning their safety, use of electrical stun guns (Tasers) by law enforcement agencies is increasing.

Tasering Taxpayers to Death in Salem

 FOX-12 showed video this week of a Salem Police officer confronting a skateboarder at the Salem Transit Mall, then shooting him with a taser in a way that seems extremely unnecessary. Police are being tight lipped about it, they admit an internal investigation was launched, so the police are policing the police....
FOX-12's Jamie Wilson says, "Salem officials tell us they can't talk about that because the details are part of their internal affairs investigation." It happened on 18 April 2014.

Taser use by officer on skateboarder under investigation


KPTV - FOX 12

 2009 Mar 15;103(6):877-80. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.11.046. Epub 2009 Jan 21.

Relation of Taser (electrical stun gun) deployment to increase in in-custody sudden deaths.

Abstract

Despite controversy concerning their safety, use of electrical stun guns (Tasers) by law enforcement agencies is increasing. We examined the effect of Taser deployment on rates of (1) in-custody sudden deaths in the absence of lethal force, (2) lethal force (firearm) deaths, and (3) officer injuries (OIs) requiring emergency room visits. Under the Public Records Act and the Freedom of Information Act, 126 police and sheriff departments from California cities were mailed surveys requesting rates of each of the outcomes of interest for each of the 5 years preceding Taser deployment through the 5 years after deployment. To control for population size and crime rates, we used total annual arrests per city as reported to the Department of Justice. Fifty cities provided predeployment and postdeployment data on in-custody sudden death, 21 cities reported firearm deaths, and 4 cities reported OIs. The rate of in-custody sudden death increased 6.4-fold (95% confidence interval 3.2-12.8, p = 0.006) and the rate of firearm death increased 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval 1.3-4.0, p = 0.003) in the in the first full year after Taser deployment compared with the average rate in the 5 years before deployment. In years 2 to 5 after deployment, rates of the 2 events decreased to predeployment levels. We observed no significant change in the rate of serious OIs after Taser deployment. In conclusion, although considered by some a safer alternative to firearms, Taser deployment was associated with a substantial increase in in-custody sudden deaths in the early deployment period, with no decrease in firearm deaths or serious OIs.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268749

 2006 Oct-Dec;10(4):447-50.

Taser use in restraint-related deaths.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The Taser is an electric weapon capable of releasing significant amounts of electricity in rapid pulses, causing uncontrollable muscle contraction. Use of this weapon has dramatically increased over the past decade, and it is now commonly used by law enforcement officers nationwide. Emergency medical services providers are, likewise, seeing more patients who have recently been subjected to application of a Taser. We examined the autopsy reports of patients who died after application of a Taser in an attempt to identify high-risk interactions.

METHODS:

This is a case series of Taser-related deaths. Fatalities occurring over four years beginning in January 2001 were identified through an Internet search, and autopsy reports were requested. Reports were analyzed for patient demographics, preexisting cardiac disease, toxicology, evidence of excited delirium, restraint techniques used, and listed cause of death.

RESULTS:

Of 75 cases identified, 37 (49.3%) had autopsy reports available for review. All cases involved men, with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years. Cardiovascular disease was found in 54.1%. Illegal substance use was found on toxicology screening for 78.4%; within that group, 86.2% were found to have been using stimulants. A diagnosis of excited delirium was given for 75.7% of the cases. Use of a Taser was considered a potential or contributory cause of death in 27%.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the largest review of Taser-related fatalities reported in the medical literature. The findings are consistent with prior studies, suggesting a high frequency of restraint-related and excited delirium-related fatalities.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16997772



Friday, July 26, 2013

An Alternate Look at Handgun Stopping Power

The data for this was taken from:
Greg Ellifritz is the full time firearms and defensive tactics training officer for a central Ohio police department.He holds instructor or master instructor certifications in more than 75 different weapon systems, defensive tactics programs and police specialty areas. Greg has a master's degree in Public Policy and Management and is an instructor for both the Ohio Peace Officer's Training Academy and the Tactical Defense Institute.

Using the .22 for Self Defense 

It is a compilation of stopping power results from every shooting he could find. He talked to the participants of gunfights, read police reports, attended autopsies, and scoured the newspapers, magazines, and Internet for any reliable accounts of what happened to the human body when it was shot. Suggested reading is: Handgun Stopping Power: The Definitive Study by  Evan P. Marshall 





Greg Ellifritz, is assuming the original target here is the head or torso and there seems to be no attempt to claim the head hit is the brain / medulla oblongata and the torso hit is the heart or lungs. 


Obviously, this represents shooters who stop shooting before the aggressor is incapacitated or independent shots. If you have to shoot an intruder, many recommend a controlled pair of rounds. My rule for self defense against an aggressor, is accept and expect to the rule of three: three yards, three seconds, and three shots for a successful self defense. 


Greg Ellifritz says, " I reported the data I have, but I really don't believe that a .32 ACP incapacitates people at a higher rate than the .45 ACP!"  
While that is a conservative statement that is more popular, it does not explain the data. Given what I know about pain, a sudden large trauma leads to a huge dump of endorphins, of which enkephlin is the main one. The smaller the trauma, the more likely they will feel the pain sooner. 
If you think about it, knowing you were shot by a .45 is certainly not going to feel more like getting shot than being shot with a .22, which is the necessary converse of that logic.People who feel no pain will keep coming at you, even if they have a mortal wound.

I have an example:In the 1986 FBI Miami shootout, Platt, who killed two and wounded two, was killed with the first shot, from a 9mm through his right arm, his lung, and stopping next to his heart. AFTER THAT, he took 11 more shots/wounds.While the mortal wound was taking effect, he fired one handed with his left hand emptying his Mini-14 [10 shots?] and five rounds from his shotgun.



PERCENT INCAPACITATED BY ONE SHOT TO TORSO OR HEAD:

47%-9mm Lugar
49%-.25 ACP
51%-.45 ACP
52%-.40 S&W
53%-.44 Magnum
55%-.38 Special
60%-.22 Short, Long, and Long Rifle
61%-.357 Magnum and Sig
62%-.380 ACP
72%-.32
80%-All Center Fire Rifles
86%-Shotguns, 90% of which were 12 gauge.



Number of Rounds To Incapacitate:

2.45 rounds-9mm Lugar
2.36 rounds-.40 S&W
2.20 rounds-.25 ACP
2.08 rounds-.45 ACP
1.86 rounds-.38 Special
1.76 rounds-.380 ACP
1.71 rounds-.44 Magnum
1.70 rounds-.356 Magnum or Sig
1.52 rounds-.32
1.40 rounds-typical center fire rifle
1.38 rounds-.22 LR, Long, or Short
1.22 rounds-typical Shotgun, 90% of which are 12 gauge

Obviously, the fewer rounds it takes to incapacitate, the better.


One-Shot-Stop Percentage

30%-.25 ACP
31%-.22 LR,Long,Short
34%-9mm Luger
39%-.38 Special
39%-.45 ACP
40%-32 Long, ACP
44%-.380 ACP
44%-.357 Magnum and Sig
45%-.40 S&W
58%-Rifle/All Centerfire
58%-Shotgun(All/90% 12 gauge)
59%-.44 Magnum

Percentage of Hits Fatal:

21%-.32 LONG,ACP
24%-9mm Luger
25%-40 S&W
25%-.25 ACP
26%-.44 Magnum
29%-.380 ACP
29%-.38 Special
29%-.45 ACP
34%-.22 LR,LONG,SHORT
34%-.357 (Magnum & Sig)
65%-Shotfun(All/90% 12 gauge)
68%-Rifle(All Centerfire)

Accuracy(Head/Torso hits)

62%-.25 ACP
74%-9mm Luger
76%-.22 Short/Long/LR
76%-.380 ACP
76%-.38 Special
76%-.40 S&W
78%-.32 Long/ACP
81%-.357 (Magnum/Sig)
81%-Rifle(Centerfire)
84%-Shortgun(90% 12 Gauge)
85%-.45 ACP
88%-.44 Magnum

Percentage of People Not Incapacitated

40%-.32 Long, ACP
35%-.25 ACP
31%-.22 LR, Long, Short
17%-.38 Special
16%-.380 ACP
14%-.45 ACP
13%-9mm Lugar
13%-.40 S&W
13%-.44 Magnum
12%-Shotgun(All, 90% 12 Gauge
  9%-.357(Magnum & Sig)
  9%-Rifle(centerfire)

.25ACP                                                                      

# of people shot - 68
# of hits - 150
% of hits that were fatal - 25%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.2
% of people who were not incapacitated - 35%
One-shot-stop % - 30%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 62%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 49%

.22 (short, long and long rifle)                      

# of people shot - 154
# of hits - 213
% of hits that were fatal - 34%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.38
% of people who were not incapacitated - 31%
One-shot-stop % - 31%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 60%

.32 (both .32 Long and .32 ACP)                    

# of people shot - 25
# of hits - 38
% of hits that were fatal - 21%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.52
% of people who were not incapacitated - 40%
One-shot-stop % - 40%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 78%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 72%

.380 ACP                                                               

# of people shot - 85
# of hits - 150
% of hits that were fatal - 29%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.76
% of people who were not incapacitated - 16%
One-shot-stop % - 44%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 62%

.38 Special                                                            

# of people shot - 199
# of hits - 373
% of hits that were fatal - 29%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.87
% of people who were not incapacitated - 17%
One-shot-stop % - 39%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 55%

9mm Luger                                                           

# of people shot - 456
# of hits - 1121
% of hits that were fatal - 24%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.45
% of people who were not incapacitated - 13%
One-shot-stop % - 34%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 74%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 47%

.357 (both magnum and Sig)                           

# of people shot - 105
# of hits - 179
% of hits that were fatal - 34%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.7
% of people who were not incapacitated - 9%
One-shot-stop % - 44%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 81%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 61%

.40 S&W                                                           

# of people shot - 188
# of hits - 443
% of hits that were fatal - 25%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.36
% of people who were not incapacitated - 13%
One-shot-stop % - 45%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 52%

.45 ACP                                                                   

# of people shot - 209
# of hits - 436
% of hits that were fatal - 29%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.08
% of people who were not incapacitated - 14%
One-shot-stop % - 39%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 85%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 51%

.44 Magnum                                                           

# of people shot - 24
# of hits - 41
% of hits that were fatal - 26%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.71
% of people who were not incapacitated - 13%
One-shot-stop % - 59%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 88%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 53%

Rifle (all Centerfire)                                           

# of people shot - 126
# of hits - 176
% of hits that were fatal - 68%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.4
% of people who were not incapacitated - 9%
One-shot-stop % - 58%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 81%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 80%

Shotgun(All,but 90% of results were 12 gauge)

# of people shot - 146
# of hits - 178
% of hits that were fatal - 65%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.22
% of people who were not incapacitated - 12%
One-shot-stop % - 58%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 84%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 86%

NOTEWORTHY ROUNDS

  120 ft/lbs .22 Aguila SSS 22 LR 60 grain 950 fps
  150 ft/lbs .25 ACP MagSafe Handgun Cartridge 22 Grain Defender Bullet 1750 fps
  183 ft/lbs .22 CCI Velocitor 22 LR 40 grain 1435 fps
  204 ft/lbs .22 Aguila Super Maximum Ammunition 22 Long Rifle 30 Grain 1750 fps
  220 ft/lbs .32 ACP Buffalo Bore 75 Grain Hard Cast Flat Nose Bullet 1150 fps
  294 ft/lbs 380 Auto +P Ammo - 100 gr. Hardcast F.N. 1150fps
  296 ft/lbs .380 ACP +P Buffalo Bore 90 Grain JHP Bullet 1218 fps
  375 ft/lbs .32 H&R Magnum +P Buffalo Bore Heavy 100 Grain JHP 1300 fps
  431 ft/lbs  9mm +P+ Buffalo Bore Barnes TAC-XP HP 115Grain Lead Free 1400fps
  484 ft/lbs .45 +P Buffalo Bore 255 gr. Hard Cast Flat Nose 925 fps
  490 ft/lbs. RIP 9MM 96 Grain HP 1265fps
  497 ft/lbs .45 +P Buffalo Bore 185 gr. TAC-XP Hollow Point 1100 fps
  500 ft/lbs. 9mm +P+ Buffalo Bore 115 Grain JHP Bullet 1426 fps
  505 ft/lbs .38 Special+P Buffalo Bore Outdoorsman 158 Grain Hard Cast 1250 fps
  537 ft/lbs.  9mm RBCD 50 grain 2300 fps
  575 ft/lbs.357 SIG CorBon Self Defense 115 Grain JHP Bullet 1500 fps  
  604 ft/lbs .40 S&W MagSafe Defender Pre Fragmented Bullet 84 Grain
  647 ft/lbs. 410 Bore Winchester Super-X 2-1/2" HP Rifled Slug 1/5 Ounce 1830 fps
  784 ft/lbs. 410 Bore Winchester Super-X 3" Rifled Slug HP 1/4 Ounce  
  789 ft/lbs .357 Magnum Buffalo Bore 158 Grain Jacketed Hollow Point Bullet 1475 fps
  899 ft/lbs .45 ACP +P MagSafe Defender Frangible 96 Grain Bullet 1660 fps
1397 ft/lbs 12 Gauge NobelSport Italia #9 lead shot Skeet 1200 fps
1698 ft/lbs .44 Magnum +P+ Buffalo Bore 340 Grain Lead Flat Nose Gas Check 1500 fps
2141 ft/lbs 12 Gauge Winchester 2-3/4" BB Steel 1-1/8 Ounce 1400 fps 
2470 ft/lbs 20 Gauge Lightfield Hybred Mag-20 7/8 Ounce Lead Sabot Slug 1700 fps
3752 ft/lbs 12 Gauge Brenneke Magnum Crush 3" Ribbed Coated Slug Lead 1-1/2 Ounce
4759 ft/lbs 12 Gauge LightfieldCommander IDSPlus Sabot Slug 3-1/2" 1-3/8Oz 1890 fps

BASEBALL BALLISTICS
Baseball diameter=7.6cm
Baseball radius=3.8cm
Baseball volume=229cm
Baseball weight=149 grams
Baseball(Pitch) @ 90mph/132 fps=89 ft/lbs.
120 ft/lbs: Aguila SSS Sniper Subsonic Ammunition 22 Long Rifle 60 Grain 950 fps
Baseball(Hit)130mph/190 fps=186 ft/lbs
204 ft/lbs: Aguila Super Maximum 22 Long Rifle 30 Grain Hyper Velocity Plated Lead Hollow Point 

Lead Density=11.34 grams/cubic centimeter
Lead Baseball weight=2596 grams
                                          /5.723 Pounds
                                          /91.56 ounces
Lead Baseball @90mph/132 fps=1609 ft/lbs

1834 ft/lbs:12 Gauge Federal Speed-Shok 2-3/4" #7 Steel 1 Ounce 25 Round Box 1375 fps
 2380 ft/lbsPHEASANT 12 Gauge Winchester Blindside 2-3/4" #5 Steel 1.25 oz 1400 fps





ARROW BALLISTICS


A 650 grain arrow delivers 54.9 ft./lbs from a 70 pound bow. 

An 800 grain arrow at 300 fps would deliver 160 ft./lbs.

Far less has been used to kill 500 pound bears. 


HAMMER BALLISTICS

A 4 pound dead blow hammer in an overhead swing 
of 57 fps/39 mph would deliver 202 ft./lbs.


RECOMMENDED READINGS:

HOW Hard Does It Hit?
A Study of Atlatl and Dart Ballistics

Bowhunting - Kinetic Energy is King

Rifle Recoil Table By Chuck Hawks



Handgun Recoil Table By Chuck Hawks






By Chuck Hawks




SAAMI Pressures
Data from the current SAAM specs (2004)
Please note that some are in psi and some cup
 

SAAMI Rifle Pressure Specifications (Maximum Average pressure)
All Piezo measurements unless specified)
CartridgePressure (Max Avg)Cartridge Pressure (Max Avg)
5 mm RFM37,000
.30-30 Winchester   
42,000
.17 Rem52,000 cup
.30-06 Springfield   
60,000
.22RF  Short 
21,000
.30-30 Winchester   (Saboted)
38,000
.22RF Long & LR24,000
.300 Savage   
47,000
.22WRF19,000
.300 Weatherby Magnum   
65,000
.22WRM   
24,000
.300 H&H Mag54,000 cup
.22 Hornet   
43,000 cup   
.300 Win Mag   
64,000
.218 Bee40,000 cup
.303 British   
49,000
.22-250 Remington   
65,000   
.307 Win52,000 cup
220 Swift54,000cup
.308 Winchester   
62,000
.222 Remington   
50,000
.308 Winchester (Saboted)
52,000
.222 Rem Mag50,000 cup
.32 Win Special   
42,000
.223 Remington   
55,000   
.32 Rem37,000 cup
.243 Winchester   
60,000   
.32-2016,000 cup
.25-06 Remington   
63,000   
.32-4030,000 cup
.250 Savage45,000 cup
8mm Mauser   
35,000
.256 Win43,000 cup
8mm Rem Magnum   
65,000
.257 Roberts   
54,000   
.338 Win Mag   
64,000
.257 Roberts  +P 58,000.348 Win40,000 cup
.264 Win Mag   
64,000   
.35 Remington   
33,500
.270 Winchester   
65,000   
.351 Win SL45,000 cup
.280 Remington   
60,000   
.35 Whelan52,000 cup
.284 Winchester   
56,000   
.350 Rem Mag56,200 cup
6mm Remington   
65,000   
.356 Win52,000 cup
6 mm BR-REM52,000 cup.358 Win52,000 cup
6.5x55   
46,000 cup 
.375 H&H   
62,000
6.5 Rem Mag56,200 cup.375 Win52,000 cup
7mm BR   Rem
52,000 cup   
.38-40 Win14,000 cup
7mm Mauser   
51,000   
.38-55 Win30,000 cup
7mm Rem Mag 
61,000   
.416 Rem Mag   
65,000
7mm Weatherby Mag   
65,000   
.444 Marlin   
44,000 cup
7mm-08   
61,000   
.45-70 Government   
28,000
7-30 Waters   45,000
.458 Win Mag 
53,000 cup
7.62x39   
45,000
.470 NE35,000 cup
.30 Carbine   
40,000  .
 . .
.30-40 Krag40,000 cup  . . .

SAAMI Pistol Pressure Specifications (Maximum Average pressure)
All Piezo measurements unless specified)
CartridgePressure (Max Avg)CartridgePressure (Max Avg)
.221 Rem Fireball52,000 cup.38 Colt12,000 cup
.22 Jet40,000 cup.357 Magnum35,000
.25 ACP25,000 cup .357 Maximum40,000
.30 Luger28,000 cup.40 S&W35,000
.32 ACP20,50010 mm37,500
.32 S&W Long15,000.41 AE35,000
.32  H&R Mag21,000 cup.41 Magnum36,000
.380 ACP21,500.44 Special15,500
9 mm Luger35,000.44-4013,000 cup
9.mm Luger +P38,500.44 Magnum36,000
9 mm Win Mag45,000 cup.45 Auto Rim15,000 cup
.38 Auto26,500.45 ACP21,000
.38 S&W14,500.45 ACP +P23,000
.38 Special17,000.45 Colt14,000
.38 Special +P18,500.45 Colt (Ruger)25,000 cup
.38-4014,000 cup.45 Win Mag40,000 cup
.38 Super +P36,500.454 Casull50,000 cup
.38 S&W13,000 cup.50 AE35,000



SAAMI Shotgun Pressure Specifications (Maximum Average Pressure in PSI)
All Piezo measurements unless specified)
Cartridge Maximum Average pressure
10 gauge 11,000 (all)
12 gauge 11,5000 (all but 3 1/2" mag)
12 gauge 3 1/2" mag 14,000
16 gauge 11,500 (all)
20 Gauge 12,000 (all)
28 gauge 12,500 (all)
.410 Bore 2 1/2" 12,500
.410 Bore 3" 13,500
 
source: http://home.sprynet.com/~frfrog2/miscellk.htm  

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