Friday, July 26, 2013

An Alternate Look at Handgun Stopping Power

The data for this was taken from:
Greg Ellifritz is the full time firearms and defensive tactics training officer for a central Ohio police department.He holds instructor or master instructor certifications in more than 75 different weapon systems, defensive tactics programs and police specialty areas. Greg has a master's degree in Public Policy and Management and is an instructor for both the Ohio Peace Officer's Training Academy and the Tactical Defense Institute.

Using the .22 for Self Defense 

It is a compilation of stopping power results from every shooting he could find. He talked to the participants of gunfights, read police reports, attended autopsies, and scoured the newspapers, magazines, and Internet for any reliable accounts of what happened to the human body when it was shot. Suggested reading is: Handgun Stopping Power: The Definitive Study by  Evan P. Marshall 





Greg Ellifritz, is assuming the original target here is the head or torso and there seems to be no attempt to claim the head hit is the brain / medulla oblongata and the torso hit is the heart or lungs. 


Obviously, this represents shooters who stop shooting before the aggressor is incapacitated or independent shots. If you have to shoot an intruder, many recommend a controlled pair of rounds. My rule for self defense against an aggressor, is accept and expect to the rule of three: three yards, three seconds, and three shots for a successful self defense. 


Greg Ellifritz says, " I reported the data I have, but I really don't believe that a .32 ACP incapacitates people at a higher rate than the .45 ACP!"  
While that is a conservative statement that is more popular, it does not explain the data. Given what I know about pain, a sudden large trauma leads to a huge dump of endorphins, of which enkephlin is the main one. The smaller the trauma, the more likely they will feel the pain sooner. 
If you think about it, knowing you were shot by a .45 is certainly not going to feel more like getting shot than being shot with a .22, which is the necessary converse of that logic.People who feel no pain will keep coming at you, even if they have a mortal wound.

I have an example:In the 1986 FBI Miami shootout, Platt, who killed two and wounded two, was killed with the first shot, from a 9mm through his right arm, his lung, and stopping next to his heart. AFTER THAT, he took 11 more shots/wounds.While the mortal wound was taking effect, he fired one handed with his left hand emptying his Mini-14 [10 shots?] and five rounds from his shotgun.



PERCENT INCAPACITATED BY ONE SHOT TO TORSO OR HEAD:

47%-9mm Lugar
49%-.25 ACP
51%-.45 ACP
52%-.40 S&W
53%-.44 Magnum
55%-.38 Special
60%-.22 Short, Long, and Long Rifle
61%-.357 Magnum and Sig
62%-.380 ACP
72%-.32
80%-All Center Fire Rifles
86%-Shotguns, 90% of which were 12 gauge.



Number of Rounds To Incapacitate:

2.45 rounds-9mm Lugar
2.36 rounds-.40 S&W
2.20 rounds-.25 ACP
2.08 rounds-.45 ACP
1.86 rounds-.38 Special
1.76 rounds-.380 ACP
1.71 rounds-.44 Magnum
1.70 rounds-.357 Magnum or Sig
1.52 rounds-.32
1.40 rounds-typical center fire rifle
1.38 rounds-.22 LR, Long, or Short
1.22 rounds-typical Shotgun, 90% of which are 12 gauge

Obviously, the fewer rounds it takes to incapacitate, the better.


One-Shot-Stop Percentage

30%-.25 ACP
31%-.22 LR,Long,Short
34%-9mm Luger
39%-.38 Special
39%-.45 ACP
40%-32 Long, ACP
44%-.380 ACP
44%-.357 Magnum and Sig
45%-.40 S&W
58%-Rifle/All Centerfire
58%-Shotgun(All/90% 12 gauge)
59%-.44 Magnum

Percentage of Hits Fatal:

21%-.32 LONG,ACP
24%-9mm Luger
25%-40 S&W
25%-.25 ACP
26%-.44 Magnum
29%-.380 ACP
29%-.38 Special
29%-.45 ACP
34%-.22 LR,LONG,SHORT
34%-.357 (Magnum & Sig)
65%-Shotfun(All/90% 12 gauge)
68%-Rifle(All Centerfire)

Accuracy(Head/Torso hits)

62%-.25 ACP
74%-9mm Luger
76%-.22 Short/Long/LR
76%-.380 ACP
76%-.38 Special
76%-.40 S&W
78%-.32 Long/ACP
81%-.357 (Magnum/Sig)
81%-Rifle(Centerfire)
84%-Shortgun(90% 12 Gauge)
85%-.45 ACP
88%-.44 Magnum

Percentage of People Not Incapacitated

40%-.32 Long, ACP
35%-.25 ACP
31%-.22 LR, Long, Short
17%-.38 Special
16%-.380 ACP
14%-.45 ACP
13%-9mm Lugar
13%-.40 S&W
13%-.44 Magnum
12%-Shotgun(All, 90% 12 Gauge
  9%-.357(Magnum & Sig)
  9%-Rifle(centerfire)

.25 ACP                            

# of people shot - 68
# of hits - 150
% of hits that were fatal - 25%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.2
% of people who were not incapacitated - 35%
One-shot-stop % - 30%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 62%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 49%

.22 (short, long and long rifle)

# of people shot - 154
# of hits - 213
% of hits that were fatal - 34%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.38
% of people who were not incapacitated - 31%
One-shot-stop % - 31%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 60%

.32 (both.32 Long and.32 ACP)

# of people shot - 25
# of hits - 38
% of hits that were fatal - 21%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.52
% of people who were not incapacitated - 40%
One-shot-stop % - 40%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 78%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 72%

.380 ACP                   

# of people shot - 85
# of hits - 150
% of hits that were fatal - 29%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.76
% of people who were not incapacitated - 16%
One-shot-stop % - 44%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 62%
9mm Luger               
# of people shot - 456
# of hits - 1121
% of hits that were fatal - 24%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.45
% of people who were not incapacitated - 13%
One-shot-stop % - 34%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 74%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 47%

.38 Special              

# of people shot - 199
# of hits - 373
% of hits that were fatal - 29%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.87
% of people who were not incapacitated - 17%
One-shot-stop % - 39%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 55%

.357 (both magnum and Sig)

# of people shot - 105
# of hits - 179
% of hits that were fatal - 34%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.7
% of people who were not incapacitated - 9%
One-shot-stop % - 44%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 81%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 61%

.40 S & W                   

# of people shot - 188
# of hits - 443
% of hits that were fatal - 25%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.36
% of people who were not incapacitated - 13%
One-shot-stop % - 45%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 76%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 52%

.45 ACP    

# of people shot - 209
# of hits - 436
% of hits that were fatal - 29%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 2.08
% of people who were not incapacitated - 14%
One-shot-stop % - 39%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 85%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 51%

.44 Magnum       

# of people shot - 24
# of hits - 41
% of hits that were fatal - 26%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.71
% of people who were not incapacitated - 13%
One-shot-stop % - 59%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 88%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 53%

Rifle (all Centerfire)  

# of people shot - 126
# of hits - 176
% of hits that were fatal - 68%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.4
% of people who were not incapacitated - 9%
One-shot-stop % - 58%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 81%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 80%

Shotgun(All,but 90% of results were 12 gauge)

# of people shot - 146
# of hits - 178
% of hits that were fatal - 65%
Average number of rounds until incapacitation - 1.22
% of people who were not incapacitated - 12%
One-shot-stop % - 58%
Accuracy (head and torso hits) - 84%
% actually incapacitated by one shot (torso or head hit) - 86%

NOTEWORTHY ROUNDS

   120 ft/lbs .22 Aguila SSS 22 LR 60 grain 950 fps UPC:640420001357 
  150 ft/lbs .25 ACP MagSafe Handgun Cartridge 22 Grain Defender Bullet 1750 fps 
  183 ft/lbs .22 CCI Velocitor 22 LR 40 grain 1435 fps UPC:076683000477  
  204 ft/lbs .22 Aguila Super Maximum Ammunition 30 Grain 1750 fps UPC:640420001012
   212 ft/lbs Remington Rimfire Ammo Yellow Jacket 22LR HP 33 Grain 1700 fps UPC047700481104
  215 ft/lbs G2 Research .380 ACP Ammunition RIP Out, HP, 62 Grains 1250fps UPC:863552000016
  220 ft/lbs .32 ACP Buffalo Bore 75 Grain Hard Cast Flat Nose Bullet 1150 fps UPC:651815030012
  243 ft/lbs 380 Auto +P 70gr  Grizzley Xtreme 1250 fps UPC 815152011244
  244 ft/lbs Polycase Inceptor .380 ACP 56 Grain Cu/Polymer ARX 1400 fps  UPC:813412020296  
  244 ft/lbs Underwood .380 ACP Xtreme Defender FTM 65 Grains 1300 fps UPC:816874020040
  255 ft/lbs Buffalo Bore .380 ACP +P  80 gr TAC-XP HP 1200fps UPC:651815027081
  277 ft/lbs Buffalo Bore .380 ACP +P 95 Grain FMJ-Flat Nose 1140 fps UPC:651815027029
  277 ft/lbs 380 Auto +P Ammo - 100 gr. Hardcast F.N. 1150fps
  296 ft/lbs .380 ACP +P Buffalo Bore 90 Grain JHP Bullet 1218 fps 
 312 ft/lbs Armscor USA .22 TCM JHP,40 Grain 1875 fps UPC:812285020013
 346 ft/lbs Armscor USA .22 TCM 9R 39 Grain JHP2000 fps UPS:812285021751
  375 ft/lbs .32 H&R Magnum +P Buffalo Bore Heavy 100 Grain JHP 1300 fps
  431 ft/lbs  9mm +P+ Buffalo Bore Barnes TAC-XP HP 115Grain Lead Free 1400fps 
  436 ft/lbs MagSafe .357 MAG, 37 Gr  2300 fps UPC:013964223279
   450 ft/lbs 9mm +P Liberty Civil Def,50 Gr CU Frag HP 2000 fps UPC: 696859105623
  465 ft/lbs Magsafe  .357 Mag, 70 GR, 1730 fps, UPC:013964223262
  484 ft/lbs .45 +P Buffalo Bore 255 gr. Hard Cast Flat Nose 925 fps
  497 ft/lbs .45 +P Buffalo Bore 185 gr. TAC-XP Hollow Point 1100 fps
  500 ft/lbs. 9mm +P+ Buffalo Bore 115 Grain JHP Bullet 1426 fps UPC:651815024011
 500 ft/lbs .40 S&W  Liberty Civil Defense 60 Grain Copper HP 2000 fps UPC:696859085444 
  528 ft/lbs Magsafe 9mm Luger 45 grains Pre-frag 2300 fps UPC: 013964223354
  548 ft/lbs .38 Special+P Buffalo Bore 158 Grain Kieth Hard Cast 1250 fps UPC:6518150202805
 560 ft/lbs.45 Long Colt Fragmenting HP  78 Grains 1800 fps UPC: 748252054975
 567 ft/lbs .40 S&W DoubleTap DT Defense  135 Grain Nosler JHP 1375fps UPC:091037282194
   575 ft/lbs.357 SIG CorBon Self Defense 115 Grain JHP Bullet 1500 fps 
   588 ft/lbs .45 ACP +P MagSafe Defender Frangible 96 Gr 1660 fps UPC:013964223224
    600 Ft/lbs Buffalo Bore .45 ACP +P 160Grain TAC-XP HP 1300 fps UPC:651815451602 
    604 ft/lbs .40 S&W MagSafe Defender Pre Frag 84 Grain 1800 fps MAG40D8 UPC:013964223132
   616 ft/lbs .45 +P Atomic Ammunition 185 grains 1225 fps UPC 858767004584
   651 ft/lbs .410 Bore Winchester Super-X 2-1/2" HP Rifled Slug 1/5 Ounce 1830 fps UPC:020892000438 
  763 ft/lbs .357 Magnum Buffalo Bore 158 Grain JHP 1475 fps UPC:651815019239
 710 ft/lbs 10MM DoubleTap DT Tactical 125 gr. 1600 fps UPC:910372820338
 770 ft/lbs 10mm Auto Liberty, CHP, 60 Grains 2400 fps UPC:748252054982
  781 ft/lbs .410 Brenneke USA  3" Rifled Slug Lead 1/4 oz  1755 fps UPC:4030128360287
   802 ft/lbs .357 Magnum Buffalo Bore 125 Grain JHP 1700 fps UPC 651815019246
   925 ft/lbs 357 magnum Armscor USA, FMJ, 125 Grain 1826 fps  UPC: 812285020068
 1151 ft/lbs .45 Long Colt +P DoubleTap 360 gr Hardcast Flat Nose 1200 fps UPC:091037282590
  1307 ft/lbs .357 Magnum ARMSCOR 357MAG 158GR FMJ 1826 fps UPC 812285020075 
 1418 ft/lbs DoubleTap .223 Remington NOS BTHP, 80 Grain 2825 fps   UPC:091037282941  
 1495 ft/lb Buffalo Bore Sniper .223 Rem 55 Grain Ballistic Tip 3500 fps UPC:651815223551   
 1573 ft/lbs 12 Gauge NobelSport Italia 1.125 oz #9 shot Skeet 1200 fps UPC:837913000045
 1698 ft/lbs .44 Magnum +P+ Buffalo Bore 340 Grain 1478 fps UPC:651815004242  
  1759 ft/lbs Hornady .22-250 Remington 35 grains 4450 fps UPC:090255383348
 1976 ft/lbs Remington 20 Ga Premier AccuTip  2-3/4" Bonded Sabot Slug, 260 Gr 1850 fps UPC:047700506906
   2141 ft/lbs 12 Ga Winchester 2-3/4" BB Steel 1-1/8 Ounce 1400 fps UPC:020892017160  
  2470 ft/lbs 20 Ga Lightfield Hybred Mag-20 7/8 Ounce Lead Sabot Slug 1700 fps UPC:784268061439
   2480 ft/lbs Kent Fasteel 12 Ga 2.75"#1Steel 1.0625oz 1550 fps UPC 656308200019
   2480 ft/lbs Kent Cartridge Fasteel 12 Ga 2.75" BB Steel 1.0625oz 1550 fps UPC:656308200002
    2569 ft/lbs Federal Mag-Shok 12 Gauge 3" #5 Copper Plated 2oz 1150fps UPC: 029465028220
   2624 ft/lbs Federal Speed-Shok 12 Ga 3"   T Steel 1.125 oz 1550 fps UPC:029465027865 
  2624 ft/lbs Federal Speed-Shok 12 ga 3" BB Steel 1.125 oz 1550 fps UPC:029465023874
  2664 ft/lbs. muzzle Hornady SST 12 Gauge 2.75" 300 gr FTX Sabot 2000 fps UPC:090255386233    
  2700 ft/lbs Liberty Animal Instinct .308 100 grain 3500 fps UPC:019962272431
  2800 ft/lbs Buffalo Bore 308 150 grain 2900 fps UPC:651815039015
  2871 ft/lbs Nosler Trophy .308 Winchester 165 gr 2800 fps UPC:054041400633  
  2883 ft/lbs PPU .30-06 SPRG 170 Grain 2805 fps UPC:8605003800897
  2918 ft/lbs Hevi-Shot Hevi-Steel 12 Ga 3" #1 Steel 1.25oz 816383600016
  2997 ft/lbs HSM Trophy Gold .308 210 Grain  2530 fps UPC:837306006548
  3008 ft/lbs Hornady Superperformance match .308 2840fps UPC:090255809633
  3510 ft/lbs Remington HyperSonic 12Ga 3"#1Steel 1.25oz 1700 fps UPC 047700510101
 3510 fps Remington HyperSonic 12 Ga 3" BB Steel 1.25oz 547 gr 1700 fps UPC:047700510002 
3856 fps Remington HyperSonic 12 Ga 3.5" BB Steel 1.375oz 601 gr 1700 fps UPC:047700510408 
  3747 ft/lbs Brenneke USA, 12 Gauge Magnum,3",1.5 oz.Slug UPC 4030128120522
  4759 ft/lbs 12 Gauge LightfieldCommander IDSPlus Sabot Slug 3-1/2" 1-3/8 Oz 1890 fps UPC:784268824638 
13688 ft/lbs PMC Bronze .50 BMG 660 Grain FMJBT 3080 fps UPC:741569060356


BASEBALL BALLISTICS

Baseball diameter=7.6 cm
Baseball radius=3.8 cm
Baseball volume=229 cm
Baseball weight=149 grams
89 ft/lbs: Baseball(Pitch) @ 90mph/132 fps 
120 ft/lbs: Aguila SSS Sniper Subsonic Ammunition 22 Long Rifle 60 Grain 950 fps
186 ft/lbs: Baseball(Hit)130mph/190 fps
204 ft/lbs: Aguila Super Maximum 22 Long Rifle 30 Grain Hyper Velocity Plated Lead Hollow Point 

Lead Density=11.34 grams/cubic centimeter
Lead Baseball weight=2596 grams
                                          /5.723 Pounds
                                          /91.56 ounces
   1609 ft/lbs: Lead Baseball @90mph/132 fps

3510 ft/lbs tackle by football player of 262.5 pounds at 20 mph/29.3333 fps

     1546 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 3.4 mph/4.98667fps
    3342 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 5 mph/7.33fps
  30082 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 15 mph/22fps
   53479 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 20 mph/29.33fps
   83561 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 25 mph/36.67fps
 120328 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 30mph/44fps
 163780 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 35 mph/51.33fps
 213917 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 40 mph/58.67fps
404437 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 55mph/80.67fps
 481313 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 60 mph/88fps
752052 ft/lbs 4000 pound car at 75 mph/110fps

Kent Fasteel 12 Ga 2.75"#1Steel 1.0625oz 
1550 fps UPC 656308200019 2480 ft/lbs 
Remington HyperSonic 12Ga 3"#1Steel 1.25oz 
1700 fps UPC 047700510101 3510 ft/lbs  



ARROW BALLISTICS

A 650 grain arrow delivers 54.9 ft./lbs from a 70 pound bow. 

An 800 grain arrow at 300 fps would deliver 160 ft./lbs.

Far less has been used to kill 500 pound bears. 


HAMMER BALLISTICS

A 4 pound dead blow hammer in an overhead swing 
of 57 fps/39 mph would deliver 202 ft./lbs.


RECOMMENDED READINGS:

HOW Hard Does It Hit?
A Study of Atlatl and Dart Ballistics

Bowhunting - Kinetic Energy is King

Rifle Recoil Table By Chuck Hawks



Handgun Recoil Table By Chuck Hawks






By Chuck Hawks




SAAMI Pressures
Data from the current SAAM specs (2004)
Please note that some are in psi and some cup
 

SAAMI Rifle Pressure Specifications (Maximum Average pressure)
All Piezo measurements unless specified)
CartridgePressure (Max Avg)Cartridge Pressure (Max Avg)
5 mm RFM37,000
.30-30 Winchester   
42,000
.17 Rem52,000 cup
.30-06 Springfield   
60,000
.22RF  Short 
21,000
.30-30 Winchester   (Saboted)
38,000
.22RF Long & LR24,000
.300 Savage   
47,000
.22WRF19,000
.300 Weatherby Magnum   
65,000
.22WRM   
24,000
.300 H&H Mag54,000 cup
.22 Hornet   
43,000 cup   
.300 Win Mag   
64,000
.218 Bee40,000 cup
.303 British   
49,000
.22-250 Remington   
65,000   
.307 Win52,000 cup
220 Swift54,000cup
.308 Winchester   
62,000
.222 Remington   
50,000
.308 Winchester (Saboted)
52,000
.222 Rem Mag50,000 cup
.32 Win Special   
42,000
.223 Remington   
55,000   
.32 Rem37,000 cup
.243 Winchester   
60,000   
.32-2016,000 cup
.25-06 Remington   
63,000   
.32-4030,000 cup
.250 Savage45,000 cup
8mm Mauser   
35,000
.256 Win43,000 cup
8mm Rem Magnum   
65,000
.257 Roberts   
54,000   
.338 Win Mag   
64,000
.257 Roberts  +P 58,000.348 Win40,000 cup
.264 Win Mag   
64,000   
.35 Remington   
33,500
.270 Winchester   
65,000   
.351 Win SL45,000 cup
.280 Remington   
60,000   
.35 Whelan52,000 cup
.284 Winchester   
56,000   
.350 Rem Mag56,200 cup
6mm Remington   
65,000   
.356 Win52,000 cup
6 mm BR-REM52,000 cup.358 Win52,000 cup
6.5x55   
46,000 cup 
.375 H&H   
62,000
6.5 Rem Mag56,200 cup.375 Win52,000 cup
7mm BR   Rem
52,000 cup   
.38-40 Win14,000 cup
7mm Mauser   
51,000   
.38-55 Win30,000 cup
7mm Rem Mag 
61,000   
.416 Rem Mag   
65,000
7mm Weatherby Mag   
65,000   
.444 Marlin   
44,000 cup
7mm-08   
61,000   
.45-70 Government   
28,000
7-30 Waters   45,000
.458 Win Mag 
53,000 cup
7.62x39   
45,000
.470 NE35,000 cup
.30 Carbine   
40,000  .
 . .
.30-40 Krag40,000 cup  . . .

SAAMI Pistol Pressure Specifications (Maximum Average pressure)
All Piezo measurements unless specified)
CartridgePressure (Max Avg)CartridgePressure (Max Avg)
.221 Rem Fireball52,000 cup.38 Colt12,000 cup
.22 Jet40,000 cup.357 Magnum35,000
.25 ACP25,000 cup .357 Maximum40,000
.30 Luger28,000 cup.40 S&W35,000
.32 ACP20,50010 mm37,500
.32 S&W Long15,000.41 AE35,000
.32  H&R Mag21,000 cup.41 Magnum36,000
.380 ACP21,500.44 Special15,500
9 mm Luger35,000.44-4013,000 cup
9.mm Luger +P38,500.44 Magnum36,000
9 mm Win Mag45,000 cup.45 Auto Rim15,000 cup
.38 Auto26,500.45 ACP21,000
.38 S&W14,500.45 ACP +P23,000
.38 Special17,000.45 Colt14,000
.38 Special +P18,500.45 Colt (Ruger)25,000 cup
.38-4014,000 cup.45 Win Mag40,000 cup
.38 Super +P36,500.454 Casull50,000 cup
.38 S&W13,000 cup.50 AE35,000

SAAMI Shotgun Pressure Specifications (Maximum Average Pressure in PSI)
All Piezo measurements unless specified)
Cartridge Maximum Average pressure
10 gauge 11,000 (all)
12 gauge 11,5000 (all but 3 1/2" mag)
12 gauge 3 1/2" mag 14,000
16 gauge 11,500 (all)
20 Gauge 12,000 (all)
28 gauge 12,500 (all)
.410 Bore 2 1/2" 12,500
.410 Bore 3" 13,500
 
source: http://home.sprynet.com/~frfrog2/miscellk.htm  

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